Book Launch 'How to Grow Microgreens' by Fionna Hill

How to Grow Microgreens, Natures Own Superfood’ by Fionna Hill

will be launched at boutique garden store Tully & Gardener, 139 Richmond Road, Grey Lynn, Auckland



on Saturday 21st August between 10 AM and 4 PM.

No space for home-grown food? Think again.

Microgreens can be grown on your windowsill.

Here’s a book that could revolutionise your household meals, keep away those winter chills and get your green thumb working...

Fionna will do a ‘show, tell and taste’ about Microgreens – the tiny seedlings of herbs and vegetables. Larger than sprouts and smaller than ‘baby’ salad greens, they nutritionally contain higher levels of active plant compounds than mature plants or seeds and can easily be grown in containers on a terrace or windowsill but if you've got a 'quarter acre pavlova paradise' they're for you too.

With Microgreens, you don’t wait weeks or months for them to come to maturity; most varieties are ready in a week or two and you can grow them right through winter. Microgreens are the new big thing in growing your own food globally.


Signed books $29.99 available on the day with a complimentary pack of

‘Fionna’s Blend Microgreen Seeds’ (seeds while stocks last)



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Comment by David Sasuga on October 11, 2010 at 4:07am
Thank you for your response to my review. Both books make unsubstantiated claims about the nutritional content of microgreens. However, it seems that you, the publisher have further illustrated my point that the use of the word Superfoods is merely a marketing ploy. It is instructive to know that this was added by the publisher ostensibly to sell more books. Adding the term superfoods to the title goes way beyond any claims made by the other microgreens book. It is also interesting that the basis of the nutritional claims in the book come from what amounts to urban legend about microgreens. Because the author relied on things she read on many websites and upon a conversation with a Johns Hopkins researcher who has a for-profit interest in promoting his research claims, does not magically turn these claims into facts. I'm somewhat surprised that like Ms. Hill, you are attempting to cite the Johns Hopkins and other researchers studies as the basis for your claims. It is hard to believe that you were not aware of the fact that none of these researchers have done any studies involving microgreens. Furthermore, I have yet to come across any nutritional analysis of microgreens. You may take exception to my review, but there is simply no way to substantiate the book's claim that microgreens are a superfood or that microgreens have more nutritional value than full-sized greens.

It would be to my benefit to join in making wild claims about microgreens being a superfood, but that would not make it true.

It is also mentioned that Ms. Hill grows her microgreens organically. In the USA, one requirement for making the claim of organically grown is that the seed must be organic as well. Of course organic seed costs more than twice the price of conventional seed. If Ms. Hill is claiming to be growing organic microgreens, did she actually use organic seed?

David Sasuga, Microgreens grower, Fresh Origins.
Comment by Fionna Hill on September 14, 2010 at 9:31am
As a publisher we do not normally respond to book reviews, but as Mr Sasuga’s post is not so much a book review as an attack on the integrity of the author and publisher, we felt it appropriate to respond.

When the author decided to write this book, it was because she enjoyed eating and growing microgreens. They allowed her to have fresh, organic, homegrown produce even though she lived in an apartment.

As she researched the topic, she read on many websites claims for the nutritional benefits of microgreens and the only other book she could find on the subject Microgreens: A guide to growing nutrient-packed greens, also claimed that microgreens were “recognized as some of the most nutrient-dense greens available”, and that the authors were struck by their “nutritional potency”. As our author does, they refer to the study that looked at sulforaphane in cruciferous vegetables and says, “ Studies have shown that one-and-a-half cups of full-grown broccoli has the same amount of this phytonutrient as just one ounce of broccoli four days after it has germinated. It is believed that the young broccoli has twenty to fifty times as much sulforaphane as the fully grown.”

The author was keen to find out more and contacted the research team at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, who conducted the studies. She specifically asked the question “can the same claims made for broccoli sprouts be applied to broccoli microgreens?” The response was ‘yes’. So she felt comfortable including this information in her book, too.

We recognise that people may dispute the claims for the scientific basis of the higher nutrient qualities and flavours of microgreens and that is fine. But what we do find so odd about Mr Sasuga’s post is that the other microgreens book, which makes the same claims to a higher nutrient content and more intense flavour for microgreens as Ms Hill’s (indeed, on the back cover it says “Learn how to plant, grow and harvest the most nutrient-dense greens available”), is described by him as “Outstanding!” and no mention is made of the authors’ nutritional information. It is this inconsistency that is the reason we felt the need to respond.

David Bateman Ltd, Publisher, Auckland, New Zealand
Comment by David Sasuga on August 20, 2010 at 3:18am
Superfoods or super hype? And what is a functional food anyway? Promoting a particular product as a superfood or functional food is the latest popular cash generating scheme. This is especially true when the superfoods marketing hype is done by invoking the fear of cancer.

Can Ms. Hill or Jed Fahey of Johns Hopkins University produce any studies that included microgreens? It would be very helpful and much more convincing than "he said"; but unfortunately, their studies did not include microgreens. Jed W. Fahey is cofounder of a company that sells broccoli sprouts! Also important to note: Readers are cautioned that much data about broccoli, broccoli sprouts and SGS is based on animal testing models and has not been proven in humans.

Ms. Hill has cited sprouts in her attempt to substantiate her superfood/functional food claim. Sprouts are not microgreens and the research done regarding broccoli sprouts was not done on microgreens. It may be convenient for her to try to mix and match sprouts and microgreens in order to confuse the issue, but microgreens were not part of the Johns Hopkins research. More information about the difference between sprouts and microgreens can be found at: http://www.freshorigins.com/microgreens.html

In her book, Ms. Hill has conveniently switched out the word "sprouts" and replaced it with the word "microgreens" when she talks about the various studies. This is a complete misrepresentation of the facts.

It is useful to note that the lead researchers involved in these broccoli sprout studies are along with Johns Hopkins University are equity owners in a company which licenses their technology to sprout growers. The researchers have founded a company called Brassica Protection Products (BPP). The Chief Executive Officer of this company is the son of one of the lead researchers. It is a for-profit business and it is in the best interest of the university and these researchers to promote the cancer fighting claims of broccoli sprouts whether or not they are truly effective. Sprout growers are also keen on having people think that sprouts and microgreens are the same thing as the popularity of microgreens grows, they hope to ride along with it.

The USDA has weighed in on the situation:
Although research suggests a promising role for SGS (Sulforaphane Glucosinolate) in promoting health, the research results do not permit definitive scientific conclusions on specific health benefits. At this time, the U.S. FDA has not reached any such conclusions or authorized any claims specifically for SGS or broccoli sprouts. Again there is no mention of microgreens.

The primary premise of the Johns Hopkins researchers was to prove that three-day-old broccoli sprouts consistently contain 20 to 50 times the amount of chemoprotective compounds found in more mature broccoli. The highest concentrations of these chemoprotective compounds were found in the seeds and recently sprouted seeds. They did not include microgreens (which do not include the sprouted seed or root, are more mature than sprouts) in their research. Since microgreens do not include the sprouted seed, they would not necessarily have any significant amounts of these compounds. More information about the study can be found at:
http://www.pnas.org/content/94/19/10367.long (proceedings of the national academy of sciences of the united states of america.

Aside from the chemoprotective compounds, The Johns Hopkins University researchers did not investigate the primary nutritional elements of broccoli. The USDA has listed the nutritional value of sprouts compared to full-sized broccoli. In summary, broccoli sprouts are significantly lower in nutritional value when compared to full-sized broccoli. Of note: the sprouts were lower in protein (1.4 compared to 2.324 mg.), fiber, Vitamin A (561 compared to 1,082.64 IU), Riboflavin (none found in sprouts compared to .043 mg.), Vitamin B-6 (.07 compared to .112 mg.), Vitamin C (20 compared to 58.188 mg), Iron (.22 compared to .665 mg.). This relates to microgreens in that the younger forms of broccoli have lower nutritional value than mature broccoli. More information can be found at: USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 14. Nutrient Data Laboratory Home Page, http://nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp.

Regarding the information cited by Ms. Hill of a study in Japan, with Dr. Akinori Yanaka of Tokyo University of Science:
Of key importance: this study was not done on microgreens; it was done on sprouts and therefore is probably not a relevant or reliable indicator that microgreens are a superfood. This study was a collaborative work of several individual researchers including J.W. Fahey who happens to be cofounder of Brassica Protection Products LLC (BPP), a company that is licensed by Johns Hopkins University to produce broccoli sprouts. J.W. Fahey may be entitled to royalty payments from the sale of broccoli sprouts. The study does include a disclosure of this conflict of interest.

Principal physiologist Tim O'Hare, of Australia's Gatton Research Station, said studies showed that, generally, the chemo-protective potential of some plant compounds is most concentrated in seeds and sprouted seeds but declines with growth, which actually suggests that since microgreens do not include the seed, or sprouted seed, that microgreens do not have significant amounts of these compounds.

Superfood is a term that has no legal definition and this has led to it being over-used as a marketing tool. Ms. Hill's book may be a perfect example of this. Not surprisingly, the superfood moniker actually means nothing, scientifically. "There's no official definition of what makes a superfood," says Marisa Moore, RD, LD, spokesperson for the American Dietetic Association. Anyone can claim anything is a superfood or functional food; there are no regulations, no guidelines, or verification.

Numerous lists of superfoods can be found popping up almost daily. For example, Kathleen M. Zelman, MPH, RD, LD
Kathleen Zelman, MPH, RD, LD, is director of nutrition for WebMD, overseeing diet, nutrition, and food information. Among other duties, she serves as senior nutrition correspondent, writes features, columns, diet book reviews, and newsletters, provides expert editorial review of diet and nutrition articles, and covers national meetings.
Zelman has extensive media experience, including co-hosting a weekly radio program, 12 years as a national spokeswoman for the American Dietetic Association, and numerous print and television appearances including CNN, Good Morning America, NBC Nightly News, The Wall Street Journal, and The New York Times. In 2007, Zelman
was awarded the prestigious American Dietetic Association "Media Excellence Award" for her contribution and commitment to educating consumers about food and nutrition issues through the media. She is a contributing writer for newspapers, magazines, and books including Paul Prudhomme's A Fork in the Road, Healthy Eating for Babies and Toddlers, and A Harvest of Healing Foods.
Here is her list of the top ten superfoods: Microgreens did not make her list. Anyone can put out a top 10 list of superfoods. Her list looks pretty good!
1. Low fat or fat free plain yogurt
2. Eggs
3. Nuts
4. Kiwis
5. Quinoa
6. Beans
7. Salmon
8. Broccoli
9. Sweet Potatoes
10. Berries

If Ms. Hill can simply provide a nutritional analysis of microgreens compared to other foods, to substantiate her claims; we would all be most grateful. Less hype and more truth please.
Comment by Fionna Hill on August 19, 2010 at 2:45am
Jed Fahey, a nutritional biochemist in the Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman Cancer Chemoprotection Centre at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (New York), confirmed for me that his research applied to microgreens as well as sprouts. He also said “I find what you have written to be accurate and reasonable.”

I used the term ‘Superfood’ in the same way as growers of blueberries, broccoli and many other plant foods.

The following is some text I have taken from my book....
.
Functional foods
‘Functional foods’ is the newly coined name for food products that contain particular health-promoting or disease-preventing properties which are additional to their normal nutritional values. Microgreens are in this group and so demand for them is growing rapidly.
Microgreens also have been found to contain higher levels of concentrated active compounds than found in mature plants or seeds. Principal physiologist Tim O’Hare, of Australia’s Gatton Research Station, said studies showed that, generally, the chemo-protective potential of some plant compounds is most concentrated in seeds and sprouted seeds but declines with growth, which suggests extra benefit from microgreens over fully grown plants...

Factors affecting nutritional value
Microgreens are at their nutritional and flavourful best when they begin to display adult-size leaves. They have much higher concentrations of vitamin C and health-promoting phytochemicals when grown in the light, compared to sprouts, which are typically grown in the dark...

Super micro foods
Wheatgrass is the most well known microgreen that is grown for its healthy compounds and properties. It’s used as a supplement after juicing. Wheatgrass is believed to lower blood pressure and cholesterol levels, increase red blood cells, relieve blood-sugar disorders such as diabetes and aid in the prevention of some cancers...
...Wheatgrass is the young grass of a common wheat plant. As a microgreen it has been around for years. Although classed as a microgreen, it is used in an entirely different way — to make a health-promoting juice.
Wheatgrass juice is abundant in vitamins, minerals, enzymes, protein and chlorophyll. It contains every amino acid, vitamin and mineral necessary for human nutrition, making it one of the few actual ‘whole foods’.
Wheatgrass is so nutrient-rich that only 30 ml (less than ⅛ cup) of freshly squeezed wheatgrass juice is equivalent in nutritional value to 1 kg (2.2 lbs) of leafy green vegetables.
Kilo for kilo, it has more vitamin C than oranges and twice the vitamin A of carrots...
...Other species such as flax, broccoli, red radish and red brassica also have researched health-promoting qualities. There have been many studies showing the link between cancer prevention and the consumption of brassicas (also known as cruciferous vegetables) such as broccoli, cabbage, rocket and kale.

Broccoli microgreens
Broccoli microgreens are one of the ‘health heroes’. They contain a micronutrient, a chemical called sulphoraphane (sulforaphane) that shows effective anti-cancer, anti-diabetic and anti-microbial properties. It is thought to kill the bacteria responsible for most stomach cancers and ulcers.
Jed Fahey, a nutritional biochemist in the Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman Cancer Chemoprotection Centre at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (New York) said, after a small, pilot study of 50 people in Japan, that broccoli microgreens, if eaten regularly, ‘might potentially have an effect on the cause of a lot of gastric problems and perhaps even ultimately help prevent stomach cancer’.
Young broccoli has been shown to have up to 20 to 50 times as much sulphoraphane as fully grown broccoli.
Along with providing possible protection against cancer, a regular intake of sulphoraphane in young broccoli has also been shown to help prevent a range of other conditions including ulcers and arthritis, as well as high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease and stroke.
Broccoli microgreens and sprouts are the first and only products with a guaranteed amount of sulphoraphane glucosinolate (SGS), a naturally occurring antioxidant compound in broccoli. (Antioxidants are linked with the prevention of cancer and coronary heart disease.) Researchers at Johns Hopkins University believe that the presence of many phytochemicals including sulphoraphane may help explain why diets rich in fruits and cruciferous vegetables are associated with good health.
Low-fat diets rich in fruit and vegetables (such as broccoli microgreens), including vitamin C and fibre, may help reduce the risk of certain cancers. Hopkins researchers are attempting to confirm the role that SGS may have in this process.

Other brassicas
A study of the cancer-preventing potential of Asian and Western vegetables belonging to the brassica family has rated radish, daikon (Japanese white radish) and broccoli sprouts as the most powerful brassica-based anti-cancer foods, with the radish sprouts possibly outperforming broccoli sprouts. Darker coloured varieties are high in vitamins, minerals and antioxidants...
Comment by David Sasuga on August 19, 2010 at 2:00am
Nutritionist Colette Heimowitz has stated that Microgreens should be comparable to normal sized vegetables in their carbohydrate content. This would suggest they are also comparable in other nutritional aspects. Colette has appeared on radio programs nationwide, as well as on national television networks including CNN, Fox News Channel and MSNBC. She also makes frequent trips around the country on the lecture circuit. She has 20-plus years of experience as a nutritionist, which includes the time she spent with Dr Atkins as director of nutrition at The Atkins Center for Complementary Medicine.
Microgreens actually have less flavor when compared with an equal weight of full-sized vegetables and greens. This suggests to me that they also have a lower nutritional content, not greater.
Comment by David Sasuga on August 18, 2010 at 7:38am
My company is the largest microgreen grower in the USA. I must state for the record: microgreens are not a superfood. They do not contain more nutrition or “higher levels of active plant compounds” than mature plants. I would love to make the claim that microgreens are more nutritious than regular greens, but there is no proof of this; where is the nutritional analysis? It is my understanding that the book does not contain any specific information to substantiate that microgreens are a superfood. To date, microgreens have not been studied and compared for their nutritional value. It is a shame that someone is out to make money by passing off false information as fact.

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